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A majority of these are scientific peer-reviewed journal articles, 
focused primarily on lucid dreaming
"Retrieved from" at the end of the source means you can get the information for FREE by following the web address.
All journal articles for the International Journal of Dream Research for FREE here:
All journal articles for Frontiers in Psychology for FREE here:
All articles of the Lucidity Letters for FREE here:
All articles, interviews, and anecdotal reports of Lucid Dream Experience (ISSN 2167-616X) for FREE here:

Abramovitch, H. (1995). The nightmare of returning home: A case of acute onset nightmare disorder treated by lucid dreaming. Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 32(2), 140-145.


Adler, T., Gackenbach, J.I., & LaBerge, S. (1983). Negative air ions and lucidity induction: Additional data. Lucidity Letter, 2 (2), 53. Retrieved from


Albert, J., Houle, K., Kalasinsky, S., King, J., Washington, S., & Clabough, E. (2014). Exploring the relationship between creativity and lucid dreaming. Impulse (19343361), 1-10. Retrieved from Google Scholar database


Alexander, C. (1987). Dream lucidity and dream witnessing: A developmental model based on the practice of transcendental meditation. Lucidity Letter, 6, 113-124. Retrieved from


Alvarado, C., & Zingrone, N. (2007). Interrelationships of parapsychological experiences, dream recall, and lucid dreams in a survey with predominantly Spanish participants. Imagination, Cognition & Personality, 27(1), 63-69. 


Alvarado, C. S., Zingrone, N. L., & Dalton, K. S. (1999). Out-of-body experiences: Alterations of consciousness and the Five-Factor Model of personality. Imagination, Cognition & Personality, 18(4), 297-317.

Antrobus, J., Kondo, T., Reinsel, R., & Fein, G. (1995). Dreaming in the late morning: summation of REM and diurnal cortical activation. Consciousness & Cognition, 4(3), 275-299. Retrieved from


Appel, K., & Pipa, G. (2014). Bidirectional, voluntary and conscious communication with arbitrary message content between a sleeping person and the waking world is possible. Somnologie, 18(1), 75. doi: 10.1007/s11818-014-0691-8

Appel, K., & Pipa, G. (2017). Auditory evoked potentials in lucid dreams: A dissertation summary. International Journal of Dream Research, 10(1), 98-100. Retrieved from


Appel, K., Pipa, G., & Dresler, M. (2018). Investigating consciousness in the sleep laboratory: An interdisciplinary perspective on lucid dreaming. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 43(2), 192-207.

Aspy, D. (2016). Is dream recall underestimated by retrospective measures and enhanced by keeping a logbook? An empirical investigation. Consciousness and Cognition, 42, 181-203.


Aspy, D.J., Delfabbro, P., Proeve, M., & Mohr, P. (2017). Reality Testing and the Mnemonic Induction of Lucid Dreams: Findings from the national Australian lucid dream induction study. Dreaming, 27(3), 206-231. doi: 10.1037/drm0000059


Atlas, N. (2017). Lucid dreaming and the path to freedom: A transpersonal, interpretative phenomenological inquiry (Doctoral dissertation, University of West Georgia).

Aviram, L., & Soffer-Dudek, N. (2018). Lucid dreaming: Intensity, but not frequency, is inversely related to psychopathology. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 384. Retrieved from


Ayers, L., Beaton, S., & Hunt, H. (1999). The significance of transpersonal experiences, emotional conflict, and cognitive abilities in creativity. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 17(1), 73-82.

Baird, B., Mota-Rolim, S. A., & Dresler, M. (2019). The cognitive neuroscience of lucid dreaming. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 100, 305-323. Retrieved from

Baird, B., Castelnovo, A., Gosseries, O., & Tononi, G. (2018). Frequent lucid dreaming associated with increased functional connectivity between frontopolar cortex and temporoparietal association areas. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 17798. Retrieved from

Baird, B., Riedner, B. A., Boly, M., Davidson, R. J., & Tononi, G. (2018). Increased lucid dream frequency in long-term meditators but not following mindfulness-based stress reduction training. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice. doi: 10.1037/cns0000176

Baltazar, P. T. (2014). Psychospiritual transformation through chronic illness: An intuitive inquiry (Doctoral dissertation, Institute of Transpersonal Psychology). Retrieved from Google Scholar database

Banerji, B. (2017). Using dreams to elicit inner healing resources: An exploratory study (Doctoral dissertation, Saybrook University).

Bannerman, B. A. (2016). Transformative, exceptional human experiences at music festivals: A transpersonal phenomenological exploration (Doctoral dissertation, University of Lethbridge). Retrieved from Google Scholar database

Bateman, K. (1999). The appearance of the deceased in dreams of the bereaved (Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute).

Barrett, D. (1991). Flying dreams and lucidity: An empirical study of their relationship. Dreaming, 1(2), 129-134. doi: 10.1037/h0094325


Barrett, D. (1992). Just how lucid are lucid dreams? Dreaming, 2(4), 221-228. doi: 10.1037/h0094362


Barrett, D. (1994). Dreams in dissociative disorders. Dreaming, 4(3), 165-175. doi: 10.1037/h0094410


Barrett, D., & Grayson, M. (2015). Content of lucid versus non-lucid dreams. Presented at 32nd annual meeting for the International Association for the Study of Dreams, Virginia Beach, VA. Retrieved from IASD website


Barron, C. S. (2008). Medicine bags and dream catchers: American Indian sacred objects, Anglo-American meaning (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri-Kansas City).

Barušs, I. (2012). What we can learn about consciousness from altered states of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research, 3(7), 805-819. Retrieved from


Bazzari, F. H. (2018). Can we induce lucid dreams? A pharmacological point of view. International Journal of Dream Research, 11(2), 106-119. Retrieved from

Beaulieu-Prévost, D., & Zadra, A. (2005). Dream recall frequency and attitude towards dreams: A reinterpretation of the relation. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(4), 919-927.


Beaulieu-Prevost, D. & Zadra, A. (2007). Absorption, psychological boundaries and attitude towards dreams as correlates of dream recall: two decades of research seen through a meta-analysis. Journal of Sleep Research, 16(1), 51-59. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2007.00572.x


Been, G., & Garg, V. (2010). Nightmares in the context of PTSD treated with psychoeducation regarding lucid dreaming. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44(6), 583. doi: 10.1080/00048671003614213


Belicki, D., Hunt, H., & Belicki, K. (1978). An exploratory study comparing self-reported lucid and non-lucid dreamers. Sleep research, 7, 166.


Benyshek, D. (2013). An archival exploration comparing contemporary artists and shamans (Doctoral dissertation, Saybrook University).

Berkhin, I., & Hartelius, G. (2011). Why altered states are not enough: A perspective from Buddhism. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 30(1-2), 63-68. Retrieved from Google Scholar database


Blackmore, S. J. (1982a). Have you ever had an OBE?: The wording of the question. Journal of Society for Psychical Research, 51, 292-302.


Blackmore, S. J. (1982b). Out of body experiences, lucid dreams, and Imagery: Two surveys. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 76(4), 301- 307.


Blackmore, S. J. (1984). A postal survey of OBEs and other experiences. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 52, 225–244. Retrieved from


Blackmore, S. J. (1986). Spontaneous and deliberate OBEs: A questionnaire survey. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research.


Blackmore, S. (1991). Lucid dreaming: Awake in your sleep? The Skeptical Inquirer, 15, 362-370.


Blackmore, S. (1991). Lucid dreams and OBEs. Lucidity Letter, 10, 1/2. Retrieved from

Blagrove, M. (1992). Dreams as the reflection of our waking concerns and abilities: A critique of the problem-solving paradigm in dream research. Dreaming, 2(4), 205-220. doi: 10.1037/h0094361


Blagrove, M., & Hartnell, S. J. (2000). Lucid dreaming: Associations with internal locus of control, need for cognition and creativity. Personality and Individual Differences, 28(1), 41-47. Retrieved from Google Scholar database


Blagrove, M., & Tucker, M. (1994). Individual differences in locus of control and the reporting of lucid dreaming. Personality and Individual Differences, 16(6), 981-984. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)90242-9


Blagrove, M., Wilkinson, A. (2010). Lucid dreaming frequency and change blindness performance. Dreaming, 20(2), 130-135. doi: 10.1037/a0019248


Blagrove, M., Bell, E., & Wilkinson, A. (2010). Association of lucid dreaming frequency with Stroop task performance. Dreaming, 20(4), 280-287. doi: 10.1037/a0020881


Blanchette‐Carrière, C., Carr, M., Paquette, T., Nielson, T. (2016). tAC stimulation: A method for inducing lucid dreams [ABSTRACT}. Presented at International Association for the Study of Dreams Annual Conference in Kerkrade, Netherlands, June 24-28. Retrieved from


Boerger, E. A. (2009). Associations among boundary structure, gender, and beliefs about control of dreams. Dreaming, 19(3), 172-186. doi: 10.1037/a0017156


Bogzaran, F. (1989). Experiencing the Divine in the lucid dream state (Master's thesis, California Institute of Integral Studies). 


Bogzaran, F. (1996). Images of the lucid mind: A phenomenological study of lucid dreaming and modern paintings (Doctoral Dissertation, U.M.I. Michigan).


Bogzaran, F. (2003). Lucid art and hyperspace lucidity. Dreaming, 13(1), 29-42. doi: 10.1023/A:1022186217703


Bonk, R. (2018). Floating for Lucidity: The Alternate Waking States Induction Method [ABSTRACT]. Presented at International Association for the Study of Dreams Annual Conference in Scottsdale, AZ, June 16-20. Retrieved from

Boopalan, A., White, E. (2016). Rift effects on dreams: Replication and extension [ABSTRACT]. Presented at International Association for the Study of Dreams Annual Conference in Kerkrade, Netherlands, June 24-28. Retrieved from


Boriskina, L., Poluektov, M., & Korabelnikova, E. (2015). Dream features of Russian population suffering from sleep paralysis. Sleep Medicine, 16, S64. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2015.02.161

Bouchet, C. (1995). Psychoanalysis and the interpretation of lucid dreams. Diogenes, 43(170), 109-126.

Bourke, P., & Shaw, H. (2014). Spontaneous lucid dreaming frequency and waking insight. Dreaming, 24(2), 152-159. Retrieved from


Bradley, L., Hollifield, M., & Foulkes, D. (1992). Reflection during REM dreaming. Dreaming, 2(3), 161-166. doi: 10.1037/h0094357

Brannen, R. (2014). Healing my jaw in a lucid dream. Lucid Dreaming Experience, 3(1), 45-46. Retrieved from


Brodsky, S. L., Esquerre, J., & Jackson Jr, R. R. (1990). Dream consciousness in problem solving. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 10(4), 353-360.         


Brooks, J., & Vogelsong, J. (2010). The subjective side of lucid dream research. International Journal of Dream Research, 3(2), 100-103. Retrieved from


Brown, A. E. (1936). Dreams in which the dreamer knows he is asleep. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 31, 59-66.


Brylowski, A. (1987a). Potential effects of lucid dreaming on immunocompetence. Proceedings from the Second Annual Lucid Dreaming Symposium. Lucidity Letter, 6(2), 1-5. Retrieved from


Brylowsky, A. (1987b). The role of lucid dreaming in the treatment of narcolepsy and nightmares: A case study. Sleep Research, 16, 319.


Brylowski, A. (1990). Nightmares in crisis: Clinical applications of lucid dreaming techniques. Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa, 15(2), 79-84.


Brylowski, A., Levitan, L., & LaBerge, S. (1989). H-reflex suppression and autonomic activation during lucid REM sleep: a case study. Sleep, 12(4), 374-378. Retrieved from Google Scholar database


Bulkeley, K. (2006). Sleep and dream patterns of political liberals and conservatives. Dreaming, 16(3), 223. Retrieved from


Bulkeley, K. (2009). Mystical dreaming: Patterns in form, content, and meaning. Dreaming, 19(1), 30-41. doi: 10.1037/a0014788

Bulkeley, K., & Graves, M. (2018). Using the LIWC program to study dreams. Dreaming, 28(1), 43-58.


Bulkeley, K. (2019). The subversive dreams of Alice in Wonderland. International Journal of Dream Research, 12(2), 49-59. Retrieved from

Busink, R, & Kuiken, D. (1996). Identifying types of impactful dreams: A replication. Dreaming, 6, 97-119. Retrieved from Google Scholar database


Buzzi, G. (2011). False awakenings in light of the dream protoconsciousness theory: A study in lucid dreamers. International Journal of Dream Research, 4(2), 110-116. Retrieved from

Buzzi, G. (2019). False awakenings in lucid dreamers: How they relate with lucid dreams, and how lucid dreamers relate with them. Dreaming, 29(4), 323–338.  


Capper, D. S. (2000). Why do Americans practice Tibetan Buddhism?. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Chicago).

Cardeña, E., Lynn, S. J., & Krippner, S. (2017). The psychology of anomalous experiences: A rediscovery. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4(1), 4. doi: 10.1037/cns0000093


Casto, K. L. (1995). Contemporary spiritual dream reports: Their content and significance (Doctoral dissertation, Saybrook University).


Cheyne, J. A., & Girard, T. A. (2007). Paranoid delusions and threatening hallucinations: A prospective study of sleep paralysis experiences. Consciousness and Cognition, 16(4), 959-974.

Cicogna, P., & Bosinelli, M. (2001). Consciousness during dreams. Consciousness and Cognition, 10(1), 26-41. doi: 10.1006/ccog.2000.0471


Clawley, C. A. (2015). Return to timelessness: The therapeutic benefit of revisioning the rhythms of time. (Master’s thesis, Pacifica Graduate Institute).

Conesa, J. (1995). Relationship between isolated sleep paralysis and geomagnetic influences: A case study. Perceptual and motor skills, 80(3_suppl), 1263-1273.


Conesa, J. (2002). Isolated sleep paralysis and lucid dreaming: ten-year longitudinal case study and related dream frequencies, types, and categories. Sleep & Hypnosis, 4(4), 132-142. Retrieved from


Cook, R. (2017). Theories of consciousness and death: Does consciousness end, continue, awaken, or transform when the body dies? Scientific GOD Journal, 8(5), 348-360. Retrieved from


Corlett, P. R., Canavan, S. V., Nahum, L., Appah, F., & Morgan, P. T. (2014). Dreams, reality and memory: confabulations in lucid dreamers implicate reality-monitoring dysfunction in dream consciousness. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 19(6), 540-553. doi: 10.1080/13546805.2014.932685


Coronel, C. (2013). Healing tinnitus in a lucid dream. Lucid Dreaming Experience, 2(2), 40-41. Retrieved from


Covello, E. (1984). Lucid dreaming: A review and experiential study of waking intrusions during stage REM sleep. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 5, 81-98.


Creagh, B. A. (2005). Transformative mourning: The Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music for widowed persons (Doctoral dissertation, Union Institute and University).

D'Agostino, A., Castelnovo, A., & Scarone, S. (2013). Dreaming and the neurobiology of self: Recent advances and implications for psychiatry. Frontiers in psychology, 4. Retrieved from


Dahl, S. A. (2013). Knowing means connecting with the source of life: Knowledge and ethics among Blackfoot traditionalists (Master’s thesis, Trent University).

Dane, J. R. (1984). A comparison of waking instructions and posthypnotic suggestion for lucid dream induction (Doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University).


Darling, M., Hoffmann, R., Moffitt, A., & Purcell, S. (1993). The pattern of self-reflectiveness in dream reports. Dreaming, 3(1), 9-19. doi: 10.1037/h0094368


Denis D., et al. (2017). A systematic review of variables associated with sleep paralysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2017.05.005


Denis, D., & Poerio, G. L. (2017). Terror and bliss? Commonalities and distinctions between sleep paralysis, lucid dreaming, and their associations with waking life experiences. Journal of Sleep Research, 26(1), 38-47. Retrieved from

Dieter, J. N. I., & Weinstein, J. A. (1995). The effects of variable frequency photo-stimulation goggles on EEG and subjective conscious state. Journal of Mental Imagery, 19(1–2), 77–89.

Dodet, P., Chavez, M., Leu-Semenescu, S., Golmard, J., & Arnulf, I. (2015). Lucid dreaming in narcolepsy. Sleep, 38(3), 487-497. Retrieved from

Doll, E., Gittler, G., & Holzinger, B. (2009). Dreaming, lucid dreaming and personality. International Journal of Dream Research, 2(2), 52-57. Retrieved from


Domhoff, G., & Schneider, A. (2008). Studying dream content using the archive and search engine on Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1238-1247. Retrieved from


Dresler, M., Eibl, L., Fischer, C., Wehrle, R., Spoormaker, V., Steiger, A.,...Pawlowski, M. (2014). Volitional components of consciousness vary across wakefulness, dreaming and lucid dreaming. Frontiers in Psychology, 4987. Retrieved from


Dresler, M., Koch, S. P., Wehrle, R., Spoormaker, V. I., Holsboer, F., Steiger, A., & ... Czisch, M. (2011). Dreamed movement elicits activation in the sensorimotor cortex. Current Biology: CB, 21(21), 1833-1837. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2011.09.029


Dresler, M., Wehrle, R., Spoormaker, V. I., Koch, S. P., Hosboer, F., Steiger, A.,…Czisch, M. (2012). Neural correlates of dream lucidity obtained from contrasting lucid versus non-lucid REM sleep: A combined EEG/fMRI case study. Sleep, 35(7), 1017-1020. doi: 10.5665/sleep.1974


Dresler, M., Wehrle, R., Spoormaker, V. I., Steiger, A., Holsboer, F., Czisch, M., & Hobson, J. A. (2015). Neural correlates of insight in dreaming and psychosis. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 2092-2099. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2014.06.004


D'Urso, B. (2005). My lucid dream geometric healing experience. The Lucid Dream Exchange, 17. Retrieved from


D’Urso, B. (2009). Levels of consciousness while dreaming or awake. Retrieved from


Dyck, S., Schredl, M., & Kühnel, A. (2017). Lucid dream induction using three different cognitive methods. International Journal of Dream Research, 10(2), 151-156. Retrieved from


Dyck, S., Schredl, M., & Kühnel, A. (2017). Retest reliability study of the Mannheim Dream Questionnaire (MADRE). International Journal of Dream Research, 10(2), 173-176. Retrieved from

Dyck, S., Kummer, N., König, N., Schredl, M., & Kühnel, A. (2018). Effects of lucid dream induction on external-rated lucidity, dream emotions, and dream bizarreness. International Journal of Dream Research, 11(1), 74-78. Retrieved from


Edelstein, J., & LaBerge, S. (1992). The best time for lucid dreaming: Naps, mishaps, and recaps. NightLight, 4(2), 4-9.


Edgcombe, D. (2003). Beyond the physical: An exploration into the structure of reality through one individual's exceptional experiences (Master’s thesis, Institute of Transpersonal Psychology).


Edwards, C. L., Ruby, P. M., Malinowski, J. E., Bennett, P. D., & Blagrove, M. T. (2013). Dreaming and insight. Frontiers in Psychology, 4979. Retrieved from


Erlacher, D. (2005). Motorisches Lernen im luziden Traum: Phänomenologische und experimentelle Betrachtungen [Motor learning in a lucid dream: phenomenological and experimental aspects]. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Heidelberg). Retrieved from

Erlacher, D. (2007). Motorisches Lernen im luziden Traum: Phänomenologische und experimentelle Betrachtungen [Motor learning in lucid dreams: phenomenological and experimental aspects] (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Heidelberg). Retrieved from

Erlacher, D. (2009). Recall of a specific word list in lucid dreams: An explorative online study. International Journal of Dream Research, 2(1), 37-40. Retrieved from


Erlacher, D. (2018). “Complicated movements should be practiced in dreams” Paul Tholey about sports, lucid dreams and consciousness. International Journal of Dream Research, 11(2), 230-233. Retrieved from

Erlacher, D., & Chapin, H. (2010). Lucid dreaming: Neural virtual reality as a mechanism for performance enhancement. International Journal of Dream Research, 3(1), 7-10. Retrieved from

Erlacher, D., & Schredl, M. (2004). Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 99(3part2), 1239-1242. doi:10.2466/PMS.99.7.1239-1242


Erlacher, D., & Schredl, M. (2008). Cardiovascular responses to dreamed physical exercise during REM lucid dreaming. Dreaming, 18(2), 112-121. doi: 10.1037/1053-0797.18.2.112


Erlacher, D., & Schredl, M. (2008). Do REM (lucid) dreamed and executed actions share the same neural substrate. International Journal of Dream Research, 1(1), 7-14. Retrieved from


Erlacher, D., & Schredl, M. (2010). Practicing a motor task in a lucid dream enhances subsequent performance: A pilot study. The Sport Psychologist, 24(2), 157-167. doi: 10.1123/tsp.24.2.157


Erlacher, D., Schredl, M., & LaBerge, S. (2003). Motor area activation during dreamed hand clenching: A pilot study on EEG alpha band. Sleep and Hypnosis, 5(4), 182-187. Retrieved from

Erlacher, D., Stumbrys, T., & Schredl, M. (2011). Frequency of lucid dreams and lucid dream practice in German athletes. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 31(3), 237-246. doi: 10.2190/ic.31.3.f


Erlacher, D., Schädlich, M., Stumbrys, T., & Schredl, M. (2014). Time for actions in lucid dreams: Effects of task modality, length, and complexity. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 1013. doi: 10.2190/ic.31.3.f


Erlacher, D., Schredl, M., Watanabe, T., Yamana, J., & Gantzert, F. (2008). The incidence of lucid dreaming within a Japanese university student sample. International Journal of Dream Research, 1(2), 39-43. Retrieved from


Esser IV, T. (2013). Lucid dreaming, Kundalini, The Divine, and non-duality. (Doctoral dissertation, California Institute of Integral Studies).


Fassler, O., Knox, J., & Lynn, S. J. (2006). The Iowa sleep experiences survey: Hypnotizability, absorption, and dissociation. Personality and Individual Differences, 41(4), 675-684.

Father X (1988). Lucid dreams and out-of-body experiences: A personal case. Lucidity Letter, 10(1 & 2). Retrieved from

Feeback, J. (2015). Lucid dreaming: New age nonsense or therapeutic tool? (Undergraduate Thesis, Ball State University). Retrieved from


Fenwick, P., Schatzman, M., Worsley, A., Adams, J., Stone, S., & Baker, A. (1984). Lucid dreaming: Correspondence between dreamed and actual events in one subject during REM sleep. Biological Psychology, 18(4), 243-252. doi: 10.1016/0301-0511(84)90056-5


Filevich, E., Dresler, M., Brick, T. R., & Kühn, S. (2015). Metacognitive mechanisms underlying lucid dreaming. The Journal of Neuroscience, 35(3), 1082-1088. Retrieved from


Fingerlin, T. (2013). Incidence and frequency of lucid dreams in a Swiss junior college student sample. International Journal of Dream Research, 6(2), 127-129. Retrieved from

Flack, B. E. (2007). Soul retrieval: Storied journeys of shamanic healing from trauma (Master’s thesis, St. Stephen’s College).

Flockhart, C., & Gackenbach, J. (2017). The nightmare protection hypothesis: An experimental inquiry. International Journal of Dream Research, 10(1), 1-9. Retrieved from


Frith, R. M. (1998). The use of lucid dreaming to alleviate fear and anxiety: An empirical exploration (Doctoral Dissertation, California Graduate Institute).

Gackenbach, J. I. (1978). A personality and cognitive style analysis of lucid dreaming (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University).

Gackenbach, J. (1981). Sex differences in lucid dreaming self-reported frequency: A second look. Lucidity Letter, 4, 127. Retrieved from


Gackenbach, J. (1981). Lucid dreaming: Individual differences in personal characteristics. Sleep Research, 10, 145.


Gackenbach, J. (1982). Balance and lucid dreaming ability: A suggested relationship. Lucidity Letter, 1(2), 7. Retrieved from


Gackenbach, J. (1982). Differences between types of lucid dreams. Lucidity Letter, 1(4), 31. Retrieved from


Gackenbach, J. (1984). An estimate of lucid dreaming incidence. Lucidity Letter, 3(1), 81. Retrieved from


Gackenbach, J. I. (1985a). A survey of considerations for inducing conscious awareness of dreaming while dreaming. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 5(1), 41-55.

Gackenbach, J. (1986a). Personality characteristics associated with the dream lucidity ability: Fact or fiction. Lucidity Letter, 5(1), 57-74. Retrieved from

Gackenbach, J. (1986b). The manifest content of self-reported lucid versus non-lucid dreams. Lucidity Letter, 5(1), 160. Retrieved from

Gackenbach, J. (1988). The potential of lucid dreaming for bodily healing. Lucidity Letter, 7(2). Retrieved from


Gackenbach, J. (1989). From lucid dreaming to pure consciousness: A conceptual framework for the OBE, UFO abduction, and NDE experiences. Lucidity Letter, 8(1). Retrieved from


Gackenbach, J. (1991). Frameworks for understanding lucid dreaming: A review. Dreaming, 1(2), 109-128. doi: 10.1037/h0094324


Gackenbach, J. (2006). Video game play and lucid dreams: Implications for the development of consciousness. Dreaming, 16(2), 96-110. doi: 10.1037/1053-0797.16.2.96

Gackenbach, J. (2008). Video game play and consciousness development: A transpersonal perspective. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 40(1), 60-87. Retrieved from


Gackenbach, J. (2009). Video game play and conscious development: A replication and extension. International Journal of Dream Research, 2(1), 3-11. Retrieved from


Gackenbach, J. (2009). Electronic media and lucid-control dreams: Morning after reports. Dreaming, 19(1), 1-6. doi: 10.1037/a0013781


Gackenbach, J. (2010). Psychological considerations in pursuing lucid dreaming research: Commentary on “The neurobiology of consciousness: Lucid dreaming wakes up” by J. Allan Hobson. International Journal of Dream Research, 3(1), 11-12. Retrieved from


Gackenbach, J., & Boyes, A. (2014). Social media versus gaming associations with typical and recent dreams. Dreaming, 24(3), 182-202. doi: 10.1037/a0037616


Gackenbach, J., & Boyes, A. (2014). Non-gaming computer use relationship to type of dream. International Journal of Dream Research, 7(2), 95-104. Retrieved from 


Gackenbach, J., & Dopko, R. (2012). The relationship between video game play, dream bizarreness, and creativity. International Journal of Dream Research, 5(1), 23-36. Retrieved from


Gackenbach, J., & Gahr, S. (2015). Media use and dream associations between Canadians of differing cultural backgrounds. International Journal of Dream Research, 8(1), 2-9. Retrieved from


Gackenbach, J., & Hammons, S. (1984). Lucid dreaming ability and verbal creativity. Dreamworks, 3(3), 219-223.


Gackenbach, J., & Hunt, H. (1992). Lucid dreaming as a transpersonal (meditational) state: A potential distinction from dream-work methods. Journal of Mental Imagery, 16(1-2), 97-102.


Gackenbach, J., & Kuruvilla, B. (2013). Cognitive structure associated with the lucid features of gamers dreams. Dreaming, 23(4), 256-265. Retrieved from Google Scholar database

Gackenbach, J., & LaBerge, S. (1989). What is possible in a lucid dream? Results of the April 1987 OMNI experiment. Lucidity Letter, 8(2). Retrieved from


Gackenbach, J. & Moorecroft, W. (1987). Psychological content of "consciousness" during sleep in a TM subject. Lucidity Letter, 6(1). Retrieved from


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Tholey (1983a)
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